About CR


Integer ASCII code: 13
Binary code: 0000 1101
Octal code: 15
Hexadecimal code: 0D
Group: control
Seq: ^M
C/C++ notation: \r or '\r'

Unicode symbol: , int code: 9229 (html &#9229) hex code: 240D (html &#x240D)


Information


Initially carriage return was used in order to move the cursor to column zero while staying on the same line. It is used in classic Mac OS (pre-Mac OS X), as well as in earlier systems such as the Apple II and Commodore 64, in order to mark end-of-line. In DOS, Windows, and different network standards, it is used foregoing LF, being a part of the end-of-line mark. This character can be sent using a Enter or Return key on a keyboard. Apart from this, it may be converted to a different end-of-line sequence by a terminal program.

Carriage return is sometimes called cartridge return. The most popular variant of its name is a laconic abbreviation CR. <CR> or return, is a control character or mechanism used in order to reset a position of the device to the beginning of a line of text. The carriage return notion is closely associated with the line feed and newline concepts. Of course, it can be considered separately in its own.

Typewriters


Initially, the notion "carriage return" was closely connected to a mechanism or lever placed on a typewriter. Let's see the examples. Imagine machines where the fixation of the type element was essential and the paper was held in a moving carriage. In this case the lever was used only after typing a line of text in order to make the carriage to return to the far right. This way the type element would be leveled to the left side of the paper. The lever usually had one more function of feeding the paper in order to move forward to the next line.

Lots of electric typewriters, for example IBM Electric or Underwood Electric made a separate key for carriage return on the keyboard instead of having a lever. The usual name of such key was "carriage return", "return", or "power return". In the Selectric type typewriters, the type element moved when typing and the paper was fixed, so the key returned the type element back to the far left. "Carrier return" term was used for this function, but not that often.

In order to improve the keyboard for non-English-speakers and make it more convenient, the symbol ↵ (U+21B5, HTML entity &crarr ;) was introduced to cooperate the combined carriage return and line feed action.

Computers


The carriage return is one of the control characters in ASCII code, Unicode, EBCDIC, and lots of other codes, if we're talking about computers. It controls a printer, or any other output system, for example the display of a system console. It controls the move of the cursor position to the first position on the same line. It was mainly used in pair with line feed (LF), a move to the next line. Being united, together they start a new line. CRLF - this is how this united sequence can be called.

The carriage return and line feed functions were divided. There are main reasons for that:

* Carriage return itself has proved its ability to overprint the line with new text. This option could be used in order to create bold or accented characters, underscores, struck-out text, and some composite symbols.

* The first mechanical printers worked really slowly, in order to return the carriage in time it took to handle one character. For this purpose, the time that was spent on sending the line feed was not wasted (frequently several more characters needed to be sent in order to make sure the carriage return had taken place before sending a printing character). This is the reason why the carriage return was always sent first.

* In order to save print and transmission time without the need for additional circuitry or mechanical complexity to "filter out" false additional CR signals, it was also possible to enter several line feed operations into the time required for a single carriage return—for example for printing text, headers/footers or title pages, which have double space.

In 1901, Baudot code provided individual carriage return and line feed characters.

Lots of computer programs use the carriage return character. It can be used alone or with a line feed, in order to signal the end of a text line. However, it's not the only character with such a function. The other characters are used for this function as well (see newline); some use it only for a paragraph break (a "hard return"). Some standards which have their own representations for line and paragraph control (for example HTML), as well as providing many programming languages, consider carriage return and line feed to be whitespace.

The carriage return is nominated as 13 (or hexadecimal 0D) In ASCII and Unicode; it may be figured as control+M or ^M as well. The carriage return is designated by in the C programming language, and lots other languages, that were somehow influenced by it.


Hash


input value base type output hash
CR char MD5 dcb9be2f604e5df91deb9659bed4748d
CR char SHA1 11f4de6b8b45cf8051b1d17fa4cde9ad935cea41
13 dec MD5 c51ce410c124a10e0db5e4b97fc2af39
13 dec SHA1 bd307a3ec329e10a2cff8fb87480823da114f8f4
00001101 bin MD5 7230afe0d967475f8d6a5df7d86cae25
00001101 bin SHA1 5c16b196bbe7b3a76d639fb0e8feef09d020b40b
0000 1101 bin MD5 b8d2ed54c8538292999285078e77a08d
0000 1101 bin SHA1 7cce025f99ca616fac6761dc8b17ee88697effe8
15 oct MD5 9bf31c7ff062936a96d3c8bd1f8f2ff3
15 oct SHA1 f1abd670358e036c31296e66b3b66c382ac00812
0D hex MD5 f59fd483a0d5460369ac125350f59582
0D hex SHA1 d2aed75dc4b28bd80d2b2b46e9cb549558d9e0a4
0x0D hex MD5 1ae3153e032a832c079855cc11bf8045
0x0D hex SHA1 83ff6ba2dee26f78d067064f5750a5a5e9b1fb61
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 2018 © Dmytro Koshovyi. Ukraine, Mykolayiv.